Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


BACKGROUND AND AIM: The inability of women to demand from their husbands, for not smoking,
has been reported as a factor in exposure to cigarette smoke. This study aimed to investigate the
perceived barriers and self‑efficacy of pregnant women regarding second‑hand smoke (SHS) at home.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross‑sectional study, and the sample size was 255
pregnant women who visited the health‑care centers in Isfahan, Iran, from July 2018 to September
2018, and were selected randomly and voluntarily. A questionnaire was designed to collect the
data about the exposure to smoke, perceived barriers, and self‑efficacy. The data were analyzed
using descriptive statistics (mean score and standard deviation), inferential statistics (nonparametric
Mann–Whitney and Kendall test), and Spearman’s correlation and regression.
RESULTS: The mean score of self‑efficacy in the exposure group was lower than that the other
group (P = 0.000). The mean score of perceived barrier was not a significant difference (P = 0.449).
Personal perceived barriers are the most important predictor of self‑efficacy of pregnant women
in exposure to SHS (95% confidence interval: 0.013–0.262) (P = 0.030). Kendall test comparing
items within the group and Mann–Whitney test comparing the two groups showed that personal
factors such as “Unaware of the dangers of SHS and protective measures” for notexposed women
and environmental factor “the lack of ban smoking law at home” for exposed women are considered
the most important barriers (P = 0.000). “Not being together a husband” (P = 0.293) and “going to
another place when smoking a husband” (P = 0.000) are the highest self‑efficacy items.
CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop training programs to increase self‑efficacy to avoid
exposure to SHS and for both pregnant women and their husbands. It is also necessary to educate
and inform about SHS and protective measures against it and to set up “smoking ban law” at home
in our country to protect pregnant women.


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