Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Labbafinezhad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Medical Education Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

5 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Razi Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran

6 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

7 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Gut and Liver Research Center, Cancer Research Institute, Sari Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran

8 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Any prediction of a person’s ability to succeed in a motor skill depends on the
detection and accurate measurement of the basic abilities for the performance of that skill. Task
analysis is needed to determine the psychomotor skills and abilities required to perform an action.
This study aimed to determine the components of psychomotor abilities for diagnostic upper
gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy through procedural task analysis (PTA) and expert review.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multisource, multimethod task analysis was conducted in six
metropolitan teaching hospitals affiliated with the adult gastroenterology and hepatology training
centers in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2019. Observation, video-recording, and think-aloud protocols
were used while diagnostic upper GI endoscopy was performed. To confirm the accuracy of the
PTA, the incorporated the views of the adult gastroenterology and hepatology subspecialty experts
through the checklist of PTA assessment criteria. Finally, to determine the psychomotor abilities for
each stage of the procedure, the study incorporated a panel of experts from occupational therapy,
physical education, physical medicine, and adult gastroenterology and hepatology subspecialty.
RESULTS: Of the 15 psychomotor abilities examined, 11 were determined for upper GI endoscopy
procedure, of which six cases (including visuospatial and perceptual abilities, hand–eye coordination,
multilimb coordination, finger dexterity, arm–hand steadiness, and manual dexterity) were the most
CONCLUSIONS: PTA techniques and subsequent expert review were used to identify the components
of psychomotor abilities for diagnostic upper GI endoscopy. It is suggested that PTA is performed
for other procedures, and after psychomotor abilities are specified, proportional tests are developed.


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