Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran

3 Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

4 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran

5 PhD. Student of Social Welfare and Health, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences,Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
2, was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. It is now known as a
pandemic and a global crisis due to rapid human‑to‑human transmission with the vast expansion
that has affected almost all countries. The primary source of the disease is still unknown, but it is
possible that the virus was transmitted through bat to an intermediate host and then to humans.
The main and early symptoms of COVID‑19 infection are fatigue, fever, dry cough, myalgia, and
dyspnea. The incubation period of the disease is about 2–14 days, which is one of the important
parameters for planning to prevent disease outbreak. PT‑polymerase chain reaction test is used to
diagnose the disease; chest computed tomography scan, chest X‑ray, blood tests, and symptoms
are also very helpful in diagnosing the disease. There is a strong emphasis on controlling infections
and hand hygiene to prevent the transmission of the disease. There is not enough knowledge about
this disease yet, and there are no specific vaccines or medications available to prevent and treat this
disease. The current review study uses articles indexed on databases of Embase, Elsevier, PubMed,
and World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and keywords of
coronavirus, COVID‑19, acute respiratory distress syndrome and China.


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