1 Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, International Campus (IUMS-IC), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Midwifery, Zanjan University of Medi

3 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Health Services Management, Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Results of previous studies about the effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) on hospital management
indicators (HMIs) (length of stay [LOS], readmission to hospital, parent satisfaction, and parent’s
preference for same postdelivery care) had high confusions. The aim of this study was to conduct a
systematic review and meta‑analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effect of KMC on HMI in
comparison with the conventional neonatal care (CNC). In this systematic review and meta‑analysis
study, required data were collected by searching the following keywords: “length of stay,” “readmission
to hospital,” satisfaction,” same post‑delivery,” “hospital management,” indicators, “skin‑to‑skin,”
“Kangaroo Mother Care,” randomized trial. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar,
PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane. To estimate the hospital management indicators,
computer software Comprehensive Meta‑Analysis 2 was used. Finally, 18 articles were included
to analysis. The overall LOS standard different between groups (KMC vs. CNC) was − 0.91 days
(95% confidence interval [CI], −2.14–0.32, Q = 25.6, df = 10, P = 0.004, I
2 = 60.98). The overall
readmission to hospital standard different between groups was − 1.78% (95% CI, −1.21%–0.86%,
Q = 0.024, df = 1, P = 0.87, I
2 = 0.00). The overall parent satisfaction standard different between
groups was 5.3% (95% CI, −32.4%–43%, Q = 0.052, df = 2, P = 0.97, I
2 = 0.00). The overall standard
different between groups was 16.2% (95% CI, −24.7%–57.1%, Q = 0.040, df = 1, P = 0.84, I
2 = 0.00).
KMC improves HMI but not significantly. According to the current study result and other studies that
report positive effect of KMC on health status of the newborns and parents, implemented of KMC in
low‑ and middle‑income countries recommended.


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