Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

2 Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran


INTRODUCTION: Developmental delay of children is a global health concern. One of the important
measures in the care of children and the assessment of children's health is the knowledge and ability
of mothers about the condition of their children's development. The purpose of this study was to
compare the outcome of lecture‑based method versus self‑learning package on the ability of mothers
to assess the development of their 12‑month‑old children seeking comprehensive health services
centers in Arak city, central province of Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a semi‑experimental study. The sample included
189 mothers of 12‑month‑old children. The data gathering tools were age and stages questionnaire
with confirmed validity and reliability. The participants in the study were divided into three group as
follows: lecture, self‑learning, and control group which were evaluated by pretest and posttest. Data
analysis was performed with SPSS version 21.
RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that both of interventional methods; lectures and
self‑learning; had a statistically significant effect on the ability of mothers to evaluate the development
of their children (P = 0.001). In the self‑learning group, the score of the participants increased from
53.35 ± 44.269 to 70.15 ± 47.290 and in the lecture group, the score of participants increased from
55.28 ± 41.268 to 16.14 ± 38.292 according to the posttests.
CONCLUSION: Due to the importance of self‑care and active role in the learning process, we suggest
the use of self‑learning package in practice.


  1. Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, Houweling TA, Taylor S; Commission
    on Social Determinants of Health, et al. Closing the gap in
    a generation: Health equity through action on the social
    determinants of health. Lancet 2008;372:1661‑9.
    2. Marecdant JK, Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB. Nelson
    Essentials of Pediatrics. 7th ed. [DNLM: 1. Pediatrics. WS 100]:
    ISBN 978‑1‑4557‑5980‑4.Iowa City, Elsevier; 2011. p. 216‑9.
    3. Amir Ali Akbari S, Torabi F, Soleimani F, AlaviMajd H.
    Correlation between high risk pregnancy and developmental
    delay in children 4‑60 months in Isfahan, Iran 2010‑2011. Q J
    Rehabil 2011;11:40‑9.
    4. Soleimani F, Vameghi R, Dadkhah A. High Risk Infants Referred
    to Health‑Care Centers in and East of Tehran and Risk Factors of
    Motor Developmental Delay. Hakim; 2009. p. 8‑11.
    5. Soleimani F, Bajelan Z, Amir Ali Akbari S, AlaviMajd H.
    Correlation between anemia during deliveryand developmental
    delay in children 12 months in Qazvin, Iran 2011‑2012. J Rehabil
    6. Menkes JH. Textbook of Child Neurology. 5th ed. Baltimore:
    Williams and Wilkins; 1995. p. 11.
    7. Tober CL, Pollak SD. Motor development of post‑institutionalized
    children across time. Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research
    in Child Development. Atlanta, GA: (2005) 2‑7.
    8. Fayazbakhsh A, Oliaiemanesh A, Poyandjo M, Forazan S. Closing
    the Gap in a Generation Health Equity Through Action on the
    Social Determination of Health. Pub: Ministry of Health and
    Medical Education; (2011):2‑7. (In persain).
    9. Onyiriuka AN. Evaluation and Management of the child with
    failure to thrive. Hospital Chronicles 6.1 2011:9.
    10. Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Educational
    Package for Improving Infant’s Nutrition and Growth; 2002. 14‑21.
    11. Squires J, Katzev A, Jenkins F. Early screening for developmental
    delays: Use of parent‑completed questionnaires in Oregon’s
    Healthy Start Program. Early Child Develop Care 2002;172:275‑82.
    12. Kosaryan M, Vahidshahi K, Shafaat B, Abaskhanian A, Azizi S,
    Shahrokh S, et al. Screening of developmental problem, day care
    centers, Sari. J Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 2007;
    17.59: 69‑75. (In persain).
    13. Sajedi F, Vameghi R, Kraskian Mojembari A, Habibollahi A,
    Lornejad H, Delavar B. Standardization and validation of the ASQ
    developmental disorders screening tool in children of Tehran city.
    Tehran Univ Med J 2012;70:436‑46.
    14. Afraz S, Ahmadi M, Sajedi F, Akbarzadeh Baghban A.
    Development status of 4‑24 months children born to teenage
    mothers referred to health care centers in Yasuj. Armaghane
    Danesh 2015; 20:253‑63.
    15. Office of Family Health and Population. Guideline For Integrated
    Management Of Child hood Illnes By Physicians (IMCI), Tehran:
    Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education; 2001.
    16. Organization, The world Health. “Education for Health
    (Health education in primary health care in instructions), translated
    by S.M, and S. wisdom”. Tehran: Chehr published, (1993):261.
    17. Mohamadi N, Rafiee Far SH, Aghamolaei T, Akbari M, Amin
    Shokravi F, Ayar S. Education‑Health in ```Yasouj. Ministry of
    Health and Medical Education; 2009. p. 246.
    18. Safavi A. General method Of Teaching Techniques Tehran:
    Moaser; 2008.
    19. Cha NH, Kim YK. Effects of self‑study circle activity on
    self‑directed learning ability and learning attitude in nursing
    students. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ 2014;20:659‑66.
    20. Stolk J. The effect of different active learning environments on
    student outcomes related to lifelong learning. Int J EngEduc
    21. Tober CL, Pollak SD. Motor Development of Post‑Institutionalized
    Children a Cross Time. Atlanta: Biennial Meeting of the Society
    for Research in Child Development; 2005.
    22. Garner AS, Shonkoff JP; Committee on Psychosocial Aspects
    of Child and Family Health, Committee on Early Childhood,
    Adoption, and Dependent Care, Section on Developmental and
    BehavioralPediatrics. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and
    the role of the pediatrician: Translating developmental science
    into lifelong health. Pediatrics 2012;129:e224‑31.
    23. Kruitbosch T, Heijmans MW. Influence of Parental Education
    on Malnutrition in Infants and Children aged Under‑Five in
    Kampala, Uganda; 2015.
    24. Sherman HH. Blended vs. Lecture Learning: Outcomes for Staff
    Development a Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate
    School of Western Carolina University in Partial Fulfilment of the
    Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Nursing; 2010.
    25. Soper T. Knowledge into learning: Comparing lecture, e‑learning
    and self‑study take‑home packet instructional methodologies with
    nurses. Nurs Open 2017;4:76‑83.
  2. 26. Golshiri P, Shams B, Zamani AR, Pourabdian S, Hassanzadeh A.
    The role of mother’s participation in changing their practice
    concerning the growth and nutrition of their children in Esfahan
    during 2003‑2004. Yafteh 2004;6:33‑43.
    27. Baghernezhad‑Hesari BF, Sharifi G, Golshiri P, Hassanzade A.
    Assessment of knowledge and practice in mothers of children
    under 3 years‑old about growth and nutrition. Zahedan J Res
    Med Sci 2012; 13(suppl 1): 23.