Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Education, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran,

2 Department of Medical Education, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

3 Department of Information and Communication Technology, Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical


INTRODUCTION: Medical sciences effects on people’s health; therefore, it is necessary to identify all
threats, opportunities, and challenges in its policy and planning particularly in the education field. The
orthotics and prosthetics (O and P) field of study has great importance alongside other rehabilitation
sciences due to its preventive status, therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the role
of key factors and, subsequently, identifying uncertainties to compile and plot a bright and planned
future for O and P education system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first, the key factors seemed to be influential improving the
education and training quality of O and P students, were identified, weighted and ranked. All these
steps were based on documentations and opinions of elites and deans of O and P through a
semi‑structured interview. Then, the final list of key factors and extracted drivers was placed and
analyzed in cross‑impact matrix by MicMac software.
RESULTS: Among the initial list of key factors and drivers which identified 45 elements; 19 key
factors and drivers scored the highest. Among 238 evaluable relationships in the cross‑impact
matrix, 123 relationships (51.6% of total matrix volume) are 0, which means that factors do not
affect each other and are not affected either. Two key factors were identified as critical uncertainties
out of 19 key factors.
CONCLUSION: Achieving education development without a dynamic and active planning system is
not possible. “Community‑based education” and “government financial support” were identified as
critical uncertainties of O and P future education system.


1. Dufva M, Könnölä T, Koivisto R. Multi‑layered foresight: Lessons
from regional foresight in Chile. Futures 2015;73:100‑11.
2. Moghimi A. Future epistemology of theoritical approches to
urban planning, artichecter and bulding industry. Urban Manag
Q 2015;14:75‑104.
3. Chermack TJ. Scenario Planning in organizations: How to
Create, Use, and Assess Scenarios. San Francisco: Berrett‑Koehler
Publishers; 2011.
4. Ardalan A, Sohrabizadeh S, Latifi MF, Rajaei MH, Asadi A,
Mirbeigi S, et al. Responding to physical and psychological
health impacts of disasters: Case study of the iranian disaster
rehabilitation plan. East Mediterr Health J 2016;22:212‑8.
5. Heinemann AW, Bode RK, O’Reilly C. Development and
measurement properties of the orthotics and prosthetics users’
survey (OPUS): A comprehensive set of clinical outcome
instruments. Prosthet Orthot Int 2003;27:191‑206.
6. Engineering Accreditation Commission. Criteria for Accrediting
Engineering Programs. Baltimore, MD: Accreditation Board for
Engineering and Technology, Inc.; 2000.
7. Zali N, Beheshti M. Identification of the key factors of regional
development approach based on planning scenario (Case Study:
Region: East). PlanVamaysh Space 2009;15:63‑41.
8. Schwartz P. The Art of the Long View: Paths to Strategic Insight
for Yourself and your Company. New York: Crown Business; 1996.
9. Schoenwald I. Thoughts on the profession. J Prosthet Orthot
10. Hovorka CF, Shurr DG, Bozik DS. The concept of an entry‑level
interdisciplinary graduate degree preparing orthotists for the new
millennium part 1: History of orthotic and prosthetic education.
J Prosthet Orthot 2002;14:51‑8.
11. American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics, Inc.
Practitioner Book of Rules. Alexandria, VA: American Board for
Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics, Inc.; 1999: 4–6.
12. Ford N, Helmbring A, Hodge MC, Hovorka C. Chapter 8: In:
NCOPE, editor. Prosthetic & Orthotic Educators Meeting Post
Meeting Book. Jönköping University, Sweden: Department of
Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences; 2002.
13. World Health Organization. World Report on Disability. Geneva:
World Health Organization; 2011.
14. Ramstrand N, Brodtkorb TH. Considerations for developing an
evidenced‑based practice in orthotics and prosthetics. Prosthet
Orthot Int 2008;32:93‑102.
15. William J, Susan K, Chailes H, Darrel C. The changing face of O
and P education: Can we make a batter practioner? J Prosthet
Orthot 1993;5:44‑56.