Document Type : Original Article


1 Departments of Psychology Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences

2 Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Birjand University of Medical Sciences

3 Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran


INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral
therapies (CBTs) for anxiety, hardiness, and self‑efficacy in female students of Birjand University
of Medical Sciences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an interventional study. A sample of 30 participants were
selected through the available sampling method and randomly assigned into experimental (CBT)
and control groups (each group, 15 female student). The data collection instrument was the Beck
Depression Inventory questionnaire. The questionnaires of Beck Anxiety Inventory, Ahvaz Hardiness
Inventory, and Schwartz’s General Self‑Efficacy Scale were completed by all participants in two
stages (pretest and posttest). A 6‑session protocol of cognitive behavioral group therapy was
performed only on the experimental group. The data were analyzed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov,
Levene’s F, Mbox, analysis of variance, and multivariate analysis of variance tests.
RESULTS: The intervention group showed that the mean of anxiety decreased, whereas (P< 0.001) the
means of hardiness and self‑efficacy increased in the posttest for the experimental group (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that CBT is an effective treatment
for anxiety, hardiness, and self‑efficacy. Therefore, through managing anxiety, the levels of hardiness
and self‑efficacy can be increased in students of university to be able to cope with the different
challenges in their life.


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