Document Type : Original Article


1 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

2 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Biostatistics Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and a major cause of mortality among
women. Breast self‑examination (BSE) is a key technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer,
which, along with lifestyle changes, can alleviate the risk of mortality. This study aimed to examine
the effect of self‑care training programs on lifestyle change and BSE of immigrant Afghan women
residing in Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi‑experimental study, 140 immigrant Afghan women visiting
health‑care centers in Shiraz (Iran) were selected via convenience sampling during 2019–2020. The
data were collected using a lifestyle questionnaire, a demographic information checklist, and a BSE
checklist. Following the pretest, the experimental group received three sessions of self‑care training
and took the posttest 2 months after the intervention. The control group did not receive any intervention,
but took the same posttest 2 months after the pretest. Data analysis was performed using paired and
independent t‑test and Chi‑squared test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22.
RESULTS: The post‑intervention level of knowledge and performance of the experimental group
significantly increased in terms of a healthy lifestyle (P < 0.001) and performance of BSE (P < 0.001)
compared to the control group. The intervention also had a significant positive effect (P < 0.000) on
all dimensions of lifestyle.
CONCLUSION: Self‑care training for lifestyle and BSE can promote the prevention and early diagnosis
of breast cancer in immigrant Afghan women who have limited access to health care.


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