Document Type : Original Article


1 Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences,

2 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Regarding the high prevalence of substance abuse and its serious complications,
the necessity of assessing factors assuming to make tendency toward substance abuse is justifiable.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical population consisted of all car drivers referred to traffic
department in 2015 in Kermanshah. In this descriptive study of correlation type, 846 risky drivers from
referrals to traffic department were randomly selected. Data were analyzed through NEO personality
inventory, general health questionnaire, and discriminant analysis.
RESULTS: Discriminant analysis was used to analyze data. Standard coefficients of discriminant
function revealed that depression, social functionality, physical symptoms, neurosis, and anxiety
symptoms were of the highest role in discriminant function while agreeableness and conscientiousness
had the least role in discriminant function and its success. The discriminant analysis also showed
that linear combination of above variables is able to explain about 75.5% of variance of difference
between two groups (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the results of this study, it is proposed that the role of personality
characteristics as well as mental health in tendency toward substance abuse could be appreciated
and included in preventive and treatment programs held for people with methamphetamine abuse.


1. Chekijian S, Paul M, Kohl VP, Walker DM, Tomassoni AJ,
Cone DC, et al. The global burden of road injury: Its relevance to
the emergency physician. Emerg Med Int 2014;2014:139219.
2. Holakoi Naeini K, Moradi A. Attitude and practice of pedestrians
about driving laws in Tehran. Payesh J Iran Inst Health Sci Res
3. Sewell RA, Poling J, Sofuoglu M. The effect of cannabis compared
with alcohol on driving. Am J Addict 2009;18:185‑93.
4. Bramness JG, Skurtveit S, Mørland J, Engeland A. An increased
risk of motor vehicle accidents after prescription of methadone.
Addiction 2012;107:967‑72.
5. Motevalian A. Estimation of death due to road traffic injuries in
Kerman district: Application of capturerecapture method. J Sch
Public Health Inst Public Health Res 2007;5:61‑72.
6. Galanter M. Innovations: Alcohol & drug abuse: Spirituality in
alcoholics anonymous: A valuable adjunct to psychiatric services.
Psychiatr Serv 2006;57:307‑9.
7. Bolhari J. Assessment of drug abuse in Iran’s prisons. Res Addict
8. Polimeni AM, Moore SM, Gruenert S. MMPI‑2 profiles of clients
whit substance dependencies accessing a therapeutic community
treatment facility. J Appl Psychol 2010;6:1‑9.
9. Lukasiewicz M, Neveu X, Blecha L, Alissard B, Reynaud M,
Gasquet I. Cognitive and behavioral effects pathways to
substance‑related disorder: A structural model approach
exploring the influence of temperament, character, and childhood
adversity in a national cohort of prisoners. Alcohol Alcohol
10. Harakeha T, Ron HJ, Scholtea H, Vriesb RE. Association
betweenpersonality andadolescent smoking. Addict Behav
11. El‑Guebaly N. Investigating the Association Between Moderate
Drinking and Mental Health. Annal of Epidemiology. 17(5):55‑629.
12. DeWall CN, Pond RS. Loneliness and smoking: The costs of the
desire to reconnect. Self Identity 2011;10:375‑85.
13. Wagner MK. Behavioral characteristics related to substance abuse
an exits, sensitivity. J Addict Behav 2001;26(1):115‑20.
14. Fisher LA, Elias JW, Ritz K. Predicting relapse to substance abuse
as a function of personality dimensions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res
15. McGee R, Williams SH, Poulton R, Moffitt T. A longitudinal study
of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early
adulthood. J Addiction 2000;95(4):491‑503.
16. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive
Textbook of Psychiatry. 8th ed. New York: Lippincott Williams
and Wilkins; 2005.
17. Cuijpers P, Smit F, ten Have M, de Graaf R. Smoking is associated
with first‑ever incidence of mental disorders: A prospective
population‑based study. Addiction 2007;102:1303‑9.18. Haglund M, Ang A, Mooney L, Gonzales R, Chudzynski J,
Cooper CB, et al. Predictors of depression outcomes among
abstinent methamphetamine‑dependent individuals exposed to
an exercise intervention. Am J Addict 2015;24:246‑51.
19. Hellem TL, Lundberg KJ, Renshaw PF. A review of treatment
options for co‑occurring methamphetamine use disorders and
depression. J Addict Nurs 2015;26:14‑23.
20. Russell DW, Cutrona CE, de la Mora A, Wallace RB. Loneliness
and nursing home admission among rural older adults. Psychol
Aging 1997;12:574‑89.
21. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Review. Neurobiological mechanisms for
opponent motivational processes in addiction. Philos Trans R Soc
Lond B Biol Sci 2008;363:3113‑23.
22. Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The incentive sensitization theory of
addiction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 2008;363:3137‑46.
23. Newton TF, De La Garza R 2nd, Kalechstein AD, Tziortzis D,
Jacobsen CA. Theories of addiction: Methamphetamine users’
explanations for continuing drug use and relapse. Am J Addict
24. Lago JA, Kosten T. Stimulant withdrawal. Addiction
25. Hellem TL. A review of methamphetamine dependence and
withdrawal treatment: A Focus on anxiety outcomes. J Subst
Abuse Treat 2016;71:16‑22.
26. Fergusson D, Swain‑Campbell N, Horwood J. Risky driving
behaviour in young people: Prevalence, personal characteristics
and traffic accidents. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003;27:337‑42.
27. Sadeghi A, Akbari B, Salek R. The investigation of the relationship
between personality triats and marital satisfaction and mental
health among women seeking divorce in the Guilan province.
J Basic Appl Sci Res 2012;2:2385‑94.
28. Garosi Farshchi M. Personality Assessment: Application of Factor
Analysis in Personality Studies. Tabriz: Publication of the Society;
29. Saatchi M, Kamkari K, Askariyan M. Psychological tests: Virayesh.
Tehran, Iran; 2010.
30. McCormick RA, Dowd ET, Quirk S, Zegarra JH. The relationship
of NEO‑PI performance to coping styles, patterns of use,
and triggers for use among substance abusers. Addict Behav
31. Watson D, Clark LA. On traits and temperament: General and
specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the
five‑factor model. J Pers 1992;60:441‑76.
32. Bottlender M, Soyka M. Impact of different personality
dimensions (NEO five‑factor inventory) on the outcome of
alcohol‑dependent patients 6 and 12 months after treatment.
Psychiatry Res 2005;136:61‑7.
33. Heiligenstein E, Smith SS. Smoking and mental health problems
in treatment‑seeking university students. Nicotine Tob Res
34. Bonny‑Noach H, Sagiv‑Alayoff M. Rescuing israeli travellers:
Effects of substance abuse, mental health, geographic region of
rescue, gender and age of rescuees. J Travel Med 2017;1(24):1-6.