Document Type : Original Article


1 Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India

2 Pharmacognosy, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India


INTRODUCTION: Responsible self‑medication plays a vital role in appropriate use of nonprescription
drugs which will improve safety and reduces unwanted effects of drugs.
AIM: This study is designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward responsible
self‑medication among pharmacy students.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross‑sectional survey was conducted in pharmacy students of various
colleges located in Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 403 pharmacy students were enrolled and subjected for
interview using prevalidated KAP questionnaire on responsible self‑medication.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics were used to represent the sociodemographic
characteristics and KAP levels. Association of socio‑demographic variables with KAP levels are
determined using the Chi‑square test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 403 pharmacy students are recruited in the study, in these
19 (4.7%) diploma in pharmacy, 260 (64.5%) bachelor in pharmacy, 27 (6.7%) master in pharmacy, and
97 (24.1%) are doctor of pharmacy. Among 403 respondents, 150 (37.2%) good knowledge, 397 (98.5%)
positive attitude, and 170 (42.2%) practice toward responsible self‑medication. Respondent’s age,
pharmacy division, residence, and their parents’ profession were significantly associated with good
knowledge and rational practice toward responsible self‑medication with a P < 0.05.
CONCLUSION: The study concludes that pharmacy students are shown more positive attitude toward
responsible self‑medication. However, students are lack of knowledge and practice of responsible


1. Badiger S, Kundapur R, Jain A, Kumar A, Pattanshetty S,
Thakolkaran N, et al. Self‑medication patterns among medical
students in South India. Australas Med J 2012;5:217‑20.
2. Pereira FS, Bucaretchi F, Stephan C, Cordeiro R. Self‑medication
in children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2007;83:453‑8.
3. Hansen EH, Holstein BE, Due P, Currie CE. International survey of
self‑reported medicine use among adolescents. Ann Pharmacother
4. Venkataraman G, Gangadharappa SK, Jacob J, Bhaskar N,
Kulkarni SB, Gupta A. Assessment of self‑medication
practice among students of a dental college of Bangalore city:
A cross‑sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent
5. McPartland TS, Weaver BA, Lee SK, Koutsky LA. Men’s
perceptions and knowledge of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
infection and cervical cancer. J Am Coll Health 2005;53:225‑30.
6. Leyva M, Byrd T, Tarwater P. Attitude towards cervical cancer
screening: A study of beliefs among women in Mexico. Calif J
Health Promot 2006;4:13‑24.
7. Gyawali S, Shankar PR, Poudel PP, Saha A. Knowledge,
Attitude and Practice of Self‑Medication among Basic Science
Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical School in Western
Nepal. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:FC17‑22.
8. Gupta S, Singh M. Self‑medication among North Indian first‑year
undergraduate healthcare students: A questionnaire‑based study.
Trop J Med Res 2016;19:162‑7.
9. Kumar A, Vandan A, Aslami AN. Analgesics Self‑Medication
and its Association with Sleep Quality among Medical
Undergraduates. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:FC07‑11.
10. Sawalha AF. A descriptive study of self‑medication practices
among Palestinian medical and nonmedical university students.
Res Social Adm Pharm 2008;4:164‑72.
11. Verma RK, Mohan L, Pandey M. Evaluation of self‑medication
among professional students in North India: Proper statutory
drug control must be implemented. Asian J Pharm Clin Res
12. Morgan DJ, Okeke IN, Laxminarayan R, Perencevich EN,
Weisenberg S. Non‑prescription antimicrobial use worldwide:
A systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 2011;11:692‑701.
13. Radyowijati A, Haak H. Improving antibiotic use in low‑income countries: An overview of evidence on determinants. Soc Sci Med
14. Bollu M, Vasanthi B, Chowdary PS, Chaitanya DS, Nirojini PS,
NadendlaRR. Prevalance of self‑medication among the pharmacy
students in Guntur: A questionnaire based study. World J Pharm
Pharm Sci 2014;3:810‑26.
15. Selvaraj K, Kumar SG, Ramalingam A. Prevalence of
self‑medication practices and its associated factors in Urban
Puducherry, India. Perspect Clin Res 2014;5:32‑6.
16. Gandhi S, Gandhi RA, Nayyar AS. Assessment of abuse of
self‑medication for oral and dental problems among 21‑60 year
saged populace residing in the rural areas of Belgaum Taluk,
Karnataka, India: A questionnaire study. Arch Med Health Sci