Document Type : Original Article


Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Qom University of Medical Science, Qom, Iran


CONTEXT: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an important cause of death during the 1st year of life
and includes a special group of cardiac diseases that exist from birth. These conditions arise due to
the abnormal development of an embryo’s normal structures.
AIMS: A case–control study was conducted to investigate the determinant factors leading to CHD.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All newborns who have been diagnosed with CHD upon
echocardiography in 2013 were considered as cases. The number of samples required was randomly
selected from the newborns who lacked CHD on cardiography. The mothers of both groups were
handed the questionnaires.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS 23 was employed to analyze the data.
RESULTS: A statistically significant association was seen between CHD and a positive family
history (FH) (P < 0.001), consanguinity (P < 0.001), maternal diabetes (P = 0.004), the use
of antiepileptics during the first 45 days of gestation (P = 0.002), and the mother’s education
status (P > 0.001). No significant association was observed between CHD in the newborn and the age
below 20 and above 35 years and (P = 0.11), maternal body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.44), smoking
during the first 45 days of gestation (P = 0.017), and maternal rheumatologic diseases (P = 0.4).
CONCLUSIONS: Newborns are at a greater risk of having CHD born from mothers with a FH of
CHD, from consanguineous marriages, history of diabetes, antiepileptic use, and lack of folic acid
use. However, no significant associations were found between newborn CHD and maternal age,
BMI, or cigarette smoking.


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