Document Type : Original Article


Social Determinants of Health Research Center, School of Public Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran


BACKGROUND: Research self‑efficacy is one of the main factors influencing the successful
conduction of research and following it in students. This study was performed with the aim of
determining the research self‑efficacy and its relationship with academic performance in postgraduate
students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in 2016.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross‑sectional study was performed on 320 postgraduate
students of TUMS in 2016. Proportional stratified sampling was done with simple random sampling
from each school. The data were gathered with Phillips and Russell’s research self‑efficacy
questionnaire, demographic questions, and grade point average (GPA) and were analyzed with
independent t‑tests, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regressions in SPSS 18.
RESULTS: Out of 320 students participating in this study, 152 patients (47.5%) were male and
168 (52.5%) were female with the mean age of 27.83 ± 4.3 years. The mean of research self‑efficacy
score was 186.18 ± 59.5 which was significant depended on college degrees and was significantly
higher in doctorate students (P = 0.0001). However, no significant difference was seen in research
self‑efficacy score of students due to gender (P = 0.754) and school (P = 0.364). There was a significant
direct relationship between students’ GPA and research self‑efficacy score (r = 0.393, P = 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that the research self‑efficacy score of TUMS
postgraduate students is at an acceptable level, except the quantitative and computer skills that
need appropriate educational interventions. As a direct and significant relationship existed between
research self‑efficacy score and student’s academic performance, improving the research self‑efficacy
will also increase students’ academic performance.


1. Munir N, Bolderston A. Perceptions and attitudes toward
conducting research: A nuclear medicine student perspective.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci 2009;40:183‑9.
2. Roshanian‑ramin M, Aqazadeh M. Research self‑efficacy in the
psychology and educational sciences graduate students. Res
Curriculum Plann 2013;2:147‑55.
3. Salehi M, Kareshki H, Ahanchian MR. Test pattern of causal
social cognitive factors affecting the research efficacy of doctoral
students. Iran High Educ 2013;5:60‑83.
4. Salehi M, Kareshki H, Ahanchian MR, Karimi Mouneghi H.
Validation of research self‑efficacy scale for postgraduate students
of Ferdowsi University and Mashhad University of Medical
Sciences. Iran J Med Educ 2012;12:396‑409.
5. Dukic MS. The research training environment and its potential
influence on graduate level counseling students’ attitudes toward
and interest in research. Vistas Online J 2015;12:1‑11.
6. Garavand H, Kareshki H, Ahanchian M. The relationship between
self‑efficacy in research and research performance: A study on
students of medical sciences University of Mashhad. Iran J Med
Educ 2014;14:41‑51.
7. Kareshki H, Bahmanabadi S. Evaluation of components and
research self – Efficacy’s structural factor among graduate
students. J Res Plann High Educ 2013;19:91‑114.
8. Baltes B, Hoffman‑Kipp P, Lynn L, Weltzer‑Ward L. Students’
research self‑efficacy during online doctoral research courses.
Contemp Issues Educ Res 2010;3:51‑8.
9. Swenson‑Britt E, Reineck C. Research education for clinical nurses:
a pilot study to determine research self‑efficacy in critical care
nurses. J Contin Educ Nurs 2009;40:454‑61.
10. Ghadampour E, Garavand H, Sabzian S. The relationship between
perception of educational‑research environment and research
self‑efficacy and academic achievement of students of Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Med Educ 2015;14:933‑42.
11. Dumbauld J, Black M, Depp CA, Daly R, Curran MA,
Winegarden B, et al. Association of learning styles with research
self‑efficacy: Study of short‑term research training program for
medical students. Clin Transl Sci 2014;7:489‑92.
12. Bandura A. Self‑efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral
change. Psychol Rev 1977;84:191‑215.
13. Garavand H, Kareshki H, Ahanchian M. The role of
educational – Research environment andsocial factors on the
research self‑efficacy of students of Mashhad University of
Medical Sciences. J Med Educ Dev 2014;8:32‑46.
14. Lev EL, Kolassa J, Bakken LL. Faculty mentors’ and students’
perceptions of students’ research self‑efficacy. Nurse Educ Today
15. Bierer SB, Prayson RA, Dannefer EF. Association of research
self‑efficacy with medical student career interests, specialization,
and scholarship: A case study. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract
16. Black ML, Curran MC, Golshan S, Daly R, Depp C, Kelly C,
et al. Summer research training for medical students: Impact on
research self‑efficacy. Clin Transl Sci 2013;6:487‑9.
17. Aryani E, Narimani A, Kamangar K, Omidvar A. The role of
gender in research self‑efficacy of nursing students. Iran J Nurs
18. Ashrafi‑Rizi H, Najafi NS, Kazempour Z, Taheri B. Research
self‑efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical
Sciences. J Educ Health Promot 2015;4:26.
19. MaghsoudiS, RahimiM, Emami SigaroodiA, KazemNezhadLeilyE.
Identity styles and academic status of Guilan University of
Medical Sciences. J Holist Nurs Midwifery 2015;25:24‑32.
20. Ghaffari M, Khani L. The relationship between social capital
and cultural intelligence with medical students’ academic
performance. Iran J Med Educ 2013;13:642‑51.
21. Forester M, Kahn JH, Hesson‑McInnis MS. Factor structures
of three measures of research self‑efficacy. J Career Assess
22. Phillips JC, Russell RK. Research Self‑efficacy, the research
training environment, and research productivity among graduate
students in counseling psychology. Couns Psychol 1994;22:628‑41.
23. Bakken LL, Byars‑Winston A, Gundermann DM, Ward EC,
Slattery A, King A, et al. Effects of an educational intervention on
female biomedical scientists’ research self‑efficacy. Adv Health
Sci Educ Theory Pract 2010;15:167‑83.
24. Ghanbari S, Soltanzadeh V. The mediating role of emotional
intelligence in the relationship between self‑efficacy of research
and academic achievement motivation. Educ Meas Eval Stud
25. Taraban R, Logue E. Academic factors that affect undergraduate
research experiences. J Educ Psychol 2012;104:499‑514.
26. Odaci H. The role of computer self‑efficacy, self‑esteem, and
subjective well‑being in predicting research self‑efficacy among
postgraduate students. Asia Pac Educ Res 2013;22:399‑406.
27. Park KH, Kim TH, Chung WJ. Implementation of the medicalresearch curriculum in graduate medical school. Korean J Med
Educ 2011;23:103‑10.
28. Rezaei M, Zamani‑Miandashti N. The relationship between
research self‑efficacy, research anxiety and attitude toward
research: A study of agricultural graduate students. J Educ Instr
Stud World 2013;3:69‑78.
29. Reyes‑Cruz MD, Perales‑Escudero MD. Research self‑efficacy
sources and research motivation in a foreign language university
faculty in Mexico: Implications for educational policy. High Educ
Res Dev 2016;35:800‑14.
30. Lambie GW, Hayes BG, Griffith C, Limberg D, Mullen PR. An
exploratory investigation of the research self‑efficacy, interest in
research, and research knowledge of Ph.D. in education students.
Innov High Educ 2014;39:139‑53.