Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph D in Health Education, Department of Health Education and Health promotion,Schoolof Health, IsfahanUniversity of Medical Sciences,Isfahan, Iran

2 Ph D in Health Education, Department of Public Health,Schoolof Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences,Gorgan,Iran.

3 Ph D in Health Education, Department of Public Health,Schoolof Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences,Gorgan,Iran

4 MSc, Instructor of Anesthesia and English Language Teaching,Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran


Objective: To investigate selected constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavior
change regarding smoking behavior among people in the preparation stage, as well as
motivation for cessation and nicotine dependency. Methods: A convenience sample of 123
smokers, during between June to and September 2011, completed the Persian version of the
short form of a smoking questionnaire based on TTM, the Fagerstrom nicotine dependence
test, and the motivational test. Results: Motivation for cessation was great (16.35 ± 2.45). The
negative affects of self-efficacy were higher than those to other situations (4.02 ± 0.84). The
pros and cons of smoking were 2.69 ± 1.00 and 3.78 ± 0.78, respectively. Temptation was
influenced by nicotine dependency (P < 0.05). Early initiation of smoking was significantly
associated with severe nicotine dependency (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results confirm the
role of temptation, increase in the cons, decrease in the pros, and nicotine dependency.


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