Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Health services, school of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan

2 Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Golestan university of Medical Sciences,Gorgan


Objective: To investigate selected constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM)
of behavior change regarding smoking behavior among Iranian male students.
Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 578 smokers and ex‑smokers from six
universities during December 2009 to June 2010 completed three Persian versions of the short
form smoking questionnaire based on TTM, developed by Prochaska, Velicer, and Diclemente.
Data were analyzed using SPSS 15. Frequency analysis was conducted to demographic
variables. Stages’ differences were assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by
post‑hoc multiple comparisons with Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Alpha
levels were set at P<0.05. Results: More than half of the subjects were in contemplation stage.
The pros of smoking among subjects in the precontemplation stage were significantly higher
than those of subjects in the preparation and maintenance stages. Meanwhile; the pros of
smoking ratings were significantly higher for the contemplation and preparation stages than
for the maintenance stage. Significant mean differences in cons of smoking behavior emerged
across the stages of change. However, pros and cons of smoking in the action stage were not
significantly different than other stages of change. In line with self‑efficacy/temptation construct,
the result showed that positive social efficacy, negative affect efficacy, and habit strength were
significantly different between the stages of change. Conclusion: The results provide support to
the advantages of increased self‑efficacy and the role of decisional balance for the intervention
program development for smoking cessation.


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