Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community Medicine (PSM), Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College & General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra

2 Indian Institute of Public Health (PHFI), Hyderabad, India


Background: Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity
between males and females in society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males.
Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As
per 2011 census sex ratio in India is 914/1000 males, which continues to be significantly
adverse towards women. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge
and attitude regarding Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act among the pregnant
women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A crosssectional study was carried out in the antenatal ward of Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical
College and General Hospital, Mumbai during the period of January to April 2008. A total
of 143 women were included and a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used
to get information regarding socio-demographic details of the pregnant women. They were
asked regarding the knowledge and attitude towards the PNDT Act. Data was analyzed by
using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0. Results: In the present study,
out of 143 women, 105 (73.5%) knew about sex determination. Even out of those who
had heard, the correct knowledge regarding PNDT act was very less. Sonography as a
technique for sex determination done at private hospital was known to the majority of women.
Conclusion: Education of women about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT
act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country must be done. Wide publicization
in the media of the Act must be scaled up.


1. Khanna SK. Prenatal sex determination- a new family building
strategy. Manushi 1995;86:23-9.
2. Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India.
Population in age group 0-6 years by sex and sex ratio (0-6). Census
of India, Government of India; 2011. Provisional population totals.
Available from:
indiaatglance.html [Last accessed on 2011 Apr 09].
3. Kanitkar T, Mistry M. Status of women in India - an interstate
comparison. Indian J Soc Work 2000;61:381-3.
4. Government of India (GOI). 2003. The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques
(Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Amendment Act. www.xiss.; Available from: http://mohfw.nic.
in/PNDTAmendments.htm [Last accessed on 2012 Apr 14].
5. Rao TB. Sociology in Medicine. 1st ed. Guntur: Sree Graphics; 2002.
p. 76.
6. Shrivastava S, Kariwal P, Kapilasrami MC. A community based study
on awareness and perception on gender discrimination and sex
preference among married women (in reproductive age group) in
a rural population of district Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. Nat J Commun
Med 2011;2:273-6.
7. Ghose S, Sarkar S. Knowledge and attitude of Prenatal Diagnostics
techniques Act among the antenatal women- a hospital based study.
J Community Med 2009;5:1-6.
8. Puri S, Bhatia V, Swami HM. Gender Preference and Awareness
Regarding Sex Determination among Married Women in Slums of
Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:60-2.
9. Chavada M, Bhagyalakshmi A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice
regarding sex determination among married women- a comparative
study between urban and rural area. Indian J Matern Child Health
10. Vadera BN, Joshi UK, Unadakat SV, Yadav BS, Yadav S. Study on
Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding gender preference and
female foeticide among pregnant women. Indian J Community Med
11. Kansal R, Khan AM, Bansal R, Parashar P. A hospital based study
on knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women on gender
preference, prenatal sex determination and female foeticide. Indian
J Public Health 2010;54:209-12.
12. Siddharam SM, Venktesh GM, Theshwari HL. Awareness regarding
gender preference and female foeticide among teachers in the
Hassan District, South India. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5(Suppl 2):1430-3