Document Type : Original Article


1 Ministry of Education, Tehran

2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

3 Hazrate Zahra Hospital

4 Forensic Medicine Organization, Isfahan, Iran


Backgrounds: The present study was carried out in order to compare national and personal
identity and their subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts. Materials and Methods: This study
was a descriptive-analytical research, and was carried out on 384 student internet users in
different universities in the city of Isfahan who were selected using quota sampling. Subjects
completed the questionnaires, then, subscales of personal and national identity questionnaires
in internet addict and nonaddict were analyzed via SPSS16 software. Results: Results indicated
a significant difference between the scores of national identity and personal identity as well as
all subscales in internet addicts and nonaddicts, except for national heritage and homeland
defence factors. In addition, there was a negative and significant relationship between addiction
to internet and personal and national identity, except for the fourth and fifth factors of national
identity (viewpoints of others considering the national group and homeland defence). Moreover,
after controlling for the sex variable, internet addiction had an effect on personal and national
identity. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that an excess of internet use and
overinvolvement in cyberspace and the addiction to them, could be associated with defects
in some aspects of national and personal identity.


1. Arashloo H. Assessment of the effect of electronic media and
virtual spaces such as the internet on identity and mental health of
students in Tehran University. [dissertation]. Islamic Azad University
of Roodehen branch. Faculty of Psychology and Educational
2. Glin L. Media and Identity. Psychological Bulletin 1997;108:499-503.
3. Stefanescu, C, Chele, G, Chirita R, Chirita, V, Ilinca M. The
relationship between development identity and internet addiction.
European Psychiatry, 2007;22:S200 Abstract book, 15th AEP
4. Huang YR. Identity and intimacy crises and their relationship to
internet dependence among college students. Cyberpsychol Behav
5. Colwell J, Payne J. Negative correlates of computer game play in
adolescents. British Journal of Psychology, 2000;91:295-310.
6. Morrison, Margaret, Krugman. A look at mass and computer
mediated thechnologies. Undrestanding the roles of television and
computer in the home. Journal Of Broadcasting and Electronic
Media 2001;45(1):135-161.
7. Hafeznia MR, Kaviani- Rad Morad, Karimipour Yadollah, Taherkhani
Mehdi. Effects of globalization on national identity (a case study:
students of Tehran universities). Geopolitical Quarterly Journal
8. MZokaie MS, Khatibi F. Internet and identity changes: A study on young professional users. Journal of Cultural and Communication
Studies, 2006;7:165-203.
9. Meerkerk GJ. Explorative research into the causes and consequences
of compulsive internet use. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Erasmus
University of Rotterdom; 2007.
10. Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Eslami M, Rezapour H. Validity, reliability
and factor analysis of compulsive internet use scale in students
internet users of Isfahan’s Universities. Journal of Health Information
Management, 2011; Vol 7, Special Issue4: 715-4.
11. Man Sally L. Prediction of Internet Addiction For Undergraduates
In Hong Kong,Honk Kong Baptist University. 2006.
12. Widyanto L, McMurran M. The psychometric properties of the
internet addiction test. Cyberpsychology Behav 2004;7:443-50.
13. Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Eslami M, Najafi M, Marasi MR, Rezapour
H. The Psychometric Properties of Young Internet Addiction Test
(IAT) in Students Internet user . Bahavioral Sciences Research
14. Ahmadi, S. Assessment of the results of Iranian National Football
Team in the 2006 Football World Cup on national identity of citizens.
Olympics Quarterly 2007;1:85-95.
15. Aghasoltani, S. Assessment of relationship between identity and
creativity among freshman of Tabriz University. [dissertation].
Isfahan University, faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences,
16. Gharaie B, Atef- Vahid MK, Dezhkam M, Mohammadian, M. Iranian
Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology (Mind and Behavior)
17. Moeedfar S, Habbibpoor Getabi K, Ganjee A. A Study of Internet
Addictive Behavior among Teenagers and the Youth (15 to 25 years
old) in Tehran, Global Media Journal(GMJ) of Tehran University
2007;4. Available at
articleId = 1004909, [Last accessed on 2011 Jan 15].
18. Sharafi MR. The youth and the fourth power of life: Self-constructive
will to identity. Tehran: Soroush Publications; 2010.
19. Maleki A, Abaspour A. Social evaluation of young individuals’
viewpoint on national identity and its factors. Quarterly of Police
Science 2010;10:159-76.
20. Alavi SS, Hashemian K., Janati Fard F. Comparison of identity and
mental health in users of internet and cyberspace among students
of Tehran University. Behavioral Science Studies. 2008;6:27-35.
21. Mansour M. Genetic psychology: Psychological development from
birth to old age. Tehran: Organization for Study and Provision of
University Books in Humanities (SAMT); 2010.
22. Rosell MC, Sanchez-Carbonell X, Jordana CG, Fargues MB. The
adolescent faced with technologies of information and
communication: Internet, mobile phone and videogame. Papeles
Del Psicologo 2007;28:196-204.