Document Type : Original Article


Instructor in Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Introduction: Drug abuse, as a social phenomenon, is one of the health problems of
the present era. Inclination to drug abuse like other social phenomena is complex and
multi‑causal. Emphasizing on the psychological factors, the present study attempts to compare
the amount of depression, anxiety and stress between drug abusers and the comparison
group. Material and Methods: The research method is descriptive‑analytic and its design
is comparative. The population includes the youths of ages of 18‑29 (with and without drug
abuse behavior). The sampling is random and the sample size in drug abuser group is 183
and in the comparison group, it is 207 persons. The data collection instrument is questionnaire
of personal information containing 6 questions and the standard questionnaire is DASS‑21.
The data were analyzed through SPSS‑18 and statistic tests independent T, chi square,
Mann‑Whitney, and logistic regression analysis. Findings: The average age of the drug
abusers is 25.9 ± 2.96 years and the comparison group is 24.2 ± 3.36. The most amount of
methamphetamine is 75.9%. A significant correlation was observed between the education
level and drug abuse behavior (P < 0.001). The score of the stress, anxiety and stress in drug
abusers is more than the comparison group and this relationship was significant (P < 0.001).
Based on the logistic regression analysis results, anxiety has the highest correlation with drug
abuse behavior. Conclusion: The low level of education is an effective factor in drug abuse.
According to the strong correlation between psychological factors and drug abuse behavior,
it is necessary to suggest social plans of prevention and treatment of mental disorders.


1. Ekhtiavi H, Behzadi A, Ganjahi H. Functional Neuroimaging study of
Brain Activation due to craving in Heroin Intravenous users. Iranian
J Psychiatr Clin Psychol 2008;14:269‑80.
2. Jessor R. Problem‑behavior theory, psychosocial development and
adolescent problem drinking. Br J Addict 1987;82:331‑42.
3. Jessor R, Jessor SL. Problem behavior and psychosocial
development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York, NY:
Academic Press; 1977.
4. Kuo CJ, Tasi SY, Liao YT, Conwell Y, Link SK, Chen CC, et al.
Risk and protective factors for suicide among patients with
methamphetamine dependence: A nested case‑control study. J Clin
Psychiatry 2011;72:487‑93.
5. Duncan BC, Christopher SM, Jack RC. Adolescent‑Onset Substance
Use Disorders Predict Young Adult Mortality. J Adolesc Health
6. Chen P, Jacobson KC. Developmental trajectories of substance use
from early adolescence to young adulthood: Gender and racial/
ethnic differences. J Adolesc Health 2012;50:154‑63.
7. Chisolm DJ, Mulatu MS, Brown JR. Racial/ethnic disparities in the
patterns of co‑occurring mental health problems in adolescents in
substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat 2009;37:203‑10.
8. Brecht ML, Greenwell L, Anglin MD. Substance use pathways
to methamphetamine use among treated users. Addict Behav
9. Falck RS, Siegal HA, Wang J, Carlson RG, Draus PJ. Non medical
drug use among stimulant‑using adults in small towns in rural Ohio.
J Subst Abuse Treat 2005;28:341‑9.
10. Agha Bakhshi H, Sedighi B, Eskandari M. Factors affecting trends
in youth drug abuse industrial. Social Research 2009;4:71‑5.
11. Allahverdipour H, Farhadinasab A, Bashirian S, Mahjoob H. Pattern
and inclination of adolescents towards substance abuse. Journal
of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences And Health
Services 2008;15:35‑42.
12. Barooni SH, Mehrdad R, Akbari E. Survey of Ecstasy use among
15‑25 year‑olds in five areas of Tehran. Tehran University Medical
Journal 2008;65:49‑54.
13. Cranford JA, Eisenberg D, Serras AM. Substance use behaviors,
mental health problems, and use of mental health services
in a probability sample of college students. Addict Behav
14. Hughes T, Szalacha LA, McNair R. Substance abuse and mental
health disparities: Comparisons across sexual identity groups
in a national sample of young Australian women. Soc Sci Med
15. Eslami AA, Ghofranipour F, Ghobari Bonab B, Shojaei ZD, Amin
shokravi F, Ghazi Tabatabaie M. Health problem behaviors in Iranian
adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and
validity. J Res Med Sci. 2010;15(3):155-66.
16. De Genna NM, Cornelius MD, Donovan JE. Risk factors for young
adult substance use among women who were teenage mothers.
Addict Behav 2009;34:463‑70.
17. Becker SJ, Curry JF, Yang C. Factors that influence trajectories of
change in frequency of substance use and quality of life among
adolescents receiving a brief intervention. J Subst Abuse Treat
18. Lobbana F, Barrowclough C, Jeffery S, Bucci S, Taylor K,
Mallinson S, et al. Understanding factors influencing substance use
in people with recent onset psychosis: A qualitative study. Soc Sci
Med 2010;70:1141‑7.
19. Mélanie G, Tessa B, Elisa R, Louise R. Risk and protective factors
for depression and substance use in an adolescent child welfare
sample. Child Youth Serv Rev 2011;33:2127‑37.
20. Henry JD, Crawford JR. The short‑form version of the Depression
Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS‑21): Construct validity and normative
data in a large non‑clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol 2005;44:227‑39.
21. Wheeler SB. Effects of Self‑Esteem and Academic Performance
on Adolescent Decision‑Making: An Examination of Early
Sexual Intercourse and Illegal Substance Use. J Adolesc Health
22. Fathi K, Mehrabizadeh HM. Evaluation of Depression, Seeking,
Excitement, Aggression, Attachment Styles and Parent education
as a predictors dependence of the drugs in the teenage boys in
Ahwaz. Educational studies and Psychology of Ferdosi University