Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

2 Department of Health Education and promotion, Faculty of Health, International Campus of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Introduction: The elderly are vulnerable to negative effects of stress factors; so, the present
study was conducted to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the PRECEDE
model on stress level of the elderly and to control stress factors. Materials and Methods: In
this quasi-experimental study, 94 elderly people from the clubs for the elderly in Tehran were
randomly divided into case and control groups in 2008–2009. Planning for the educational
program was done according to the PRECEDE model. Before implementing the program,
valid and reliable depression, anxiety, and stress questionnaires (DASS 21) were completed
for both groups. The experimental group received the educational intervention based on the
PRECEDE model (eight sessions, one session per week), and both groups were followed up
two months after the intervention (the previous questionnaires were filled again). DASS 21
Scoring and Interpretation Generator was used for calculating scores of the questionnaires.
Finally, the data obtained were analyzed by the SPSS 15 software using t-test, paired t-test, and
Mann-Whitney test at a significant level of P≤0.05. Results: The findings showed significant
differences between the experimental group and control group in terms of predisposing
factors of knowledge (P≤0.001) and attitude (P≤0.001), enabling factors (P≤0.001), reinforcing
factors (P≤0.001), and functioning especially in deep breathing and relaxation techniques
(P≤0.001). Mean scores and severity of stress were significant after the intervention (P≤0.001).
Conclusion: The findings of the present study confirmed the effectiveness of the PRECEDE
model-based educational program on preventing or reducing stress level in the elderly.


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