Document Type : Original Article



Background: The thought of having a surgery can be stressful for everyone. Providing
the necessary information to the patient can help both the patient and the treatment team.
This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of face‑to‑face verbal training and
educational pamphlets on the readiness of patients for undergoing non‑emergency surgeries.
Materials and Methods: The study was a before–after randomized clinical trial. 90 patients
scheduled to undergo non‑emergency surgery who referred to Shahrekord Ayatollah Kashani
Hospital in 2013 were distributed randomly and gradually into two experimental groups (group of
face‑to‑face verbal training and group of educational pamphlet) and one control group. Dependent
variable of the study was pre‑surgery readiness. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS
statistical software. Statistical analysis were analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation test.
Results: Results showed that the mean scores of pre‑surgery readiness in both interventional
groups were significantly higher than that in the control group after the intervention (P < 0.05).
However, there was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Each of the methods of face‑to‑face verbal education and using the pamphlet could
be equally effective in improving the readiness of the patients undergoing surgery. Therefore,
in environments where the health care providers are facing with the pressure of work and lack
of sufficient time for face‑to‑face verbal training, suitable educational pamphlets can be used to
provide the necessary information to patients and prepare them for surgery.


1. Kruzik N. Benefits of preoperative education for adult elective
Surgery Patients. AORN J 2009;90:381‑7.
2. Henney S, Rakhra S. Patient information in otorhinolaryngology:
A prospective audit. JRSM Short Rep 2011;2:37.
3. Pokharel K, Bhattarai B, Khatiwada S. Nepalese patients’ anxiety
and concerns before surgery. J Clin Anesth 2011;23:372‑8.
4. Hong J, Nguyen VT, Prose SN. Compassionate care: Enhancing
physician‑patient communication and education in dermatology.
Part II: Patient education. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68:364.e1‑10
5. VahedianAzimi A, Alhani F, Hedayat K. Barriers and facilitators
of patient’s education: Nurses’ perspectives. Iran J Med Educ
6. Hekmatpou D, Anoosheh M, Alhani F. Pathology of patient
education: A qualitative study. Iran J Nurs 2007;20:51‑60.
7. Harwood A, Harrison EJ. How readable are orthodontic patient
information leaflets? J Orthod 2004;31:210‑9.
8. Felley C, Perneger TV, Goulet I, Rouillard C, Azar‑Pey N, Dorta G,
et al. Combined written and oral information prior to gastrointestinal
endoscopy compared with oral information alone: A randomized
trial. BMC Gastroenterol 2008;8:1‑7.
9. Klein NP, Kissner J, Aguirre A, Sparks R, Campbell S, Edwards KM,
et al. Differential maternal responses to a newly developed vaccine
information pamphlet. Vaccine 2009;28:323‑8.
10. Humphris GM, Ireland RS, Field EA. Immediate knowledge increase
from an oral cancer information leaflet in patients attending a
primary health care facility: A randomised controlled trial. Oral
Oncol 2001;37:99‑102.
11. Keulers BJ, Welters CF, Spauwen PH, Houpt P. Can face‑to‑face
patient education be replaced by computer‑based patient
education? A randomised trial. Patient Educ Couns 2007;67:176‑82.
12. Strömberg A, Dahlström U, Fridlund B. Computer‑based education
for patients with chronic heart failure. A randomised, controlled,
multicenter trial of the effects on knowledge, compliance and quality
of life. Patient Educ Couns 2006;64:128‑35.
13. Venmans LM, Gorter KJ, Baard KP, Rutten GE, Hak E. Acceptability
and effects of an educational leaflet on infections in type 2 diabetes
patients: A randomized controlled trial in primary care. Prim Care
Diabetes 2007;1:135‑42.
14. Little P, Rumsby K, Kelly J, Watson L, Moore M, Warner G, et al.
Information leaflet and antibiotic prescribing strateg ies for acute
lower respiratory tract infection. JAMA 2005;22:3029‑35.
15. Wetzels R, Wensing M, Van Weel C, Grol R. A consultation leaflet
to improve an older patient’s involvement in general practice care:
A randomized trial. Health Expect 2005;8:286‑94.
16. Sawamura K, Ito H, Koyama A, Tajima M, Higuchi T. The effect
of an educational leaflet on depressive patients’ attitudes toward
treatment. Psychiatry Res 2010;177:184‑7.
17. Smith SG, Wolf MS, Obichere A, Raine R, Wardle J, von Wagner C.
The development and testing of a brief (‘gist‑based’) supplementary
colorectal cancer screening information leaflet. Patient Educ Couns
18. Arhan E, Serdaroglu A, Soysal S, Ozcelik A, Gucuyener K,
Demir E. Assessment of mother’ knowledge and perceptions of
electroencephalography and determination of the short‑term effect
of an informational leaflet. Epilepsy Behav 2009;15:491‑5.
19. Petti S, Scully C. Oral cancer knowledge and awareness: Primary and
secondary effects of an information leaflet. Oral Oncol 2007;43:408‑15.
20. HeikkinenK, Helena LK, TainaN, AnneK, SannaS. A comparison of two
educational interventions for the cognitive empowerment of ambulatory
orthopaedic surgery patients. Patient Educ Couns 2008;73:272‑9.
21. Rossi M, McClellan R, Chou L, Davis K. Informed consent for ankle
fracture surgery: Patient comprehension of verbal and videotaped
information. Foot Ankle Int 2004;25:756‑62