Document Type : Original Article


1 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery,

2 Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Duplicate publication is the republication of an article in which a lot of important parts overlap with
the published copy. This issue is nearly at the top of the list of subjects, which medical journal
editors discuss. this study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the publication
patterns and determining it’s root causes in research articles in the Isfahan University of Medical
Science and to find a solution to prevent it. In a cross sectional study , All the discovered cases
of duplicate publication, which were referred to the ethics committee of the Isfahan University
of Medical Science during 2005–2008 were selected to be investigated through a descriptive
method. After confirmation about the case of a duplicate publication, the requisite investigation
was conducted through interviews and review of the correspondence and documentaries, and
then, a radical line was charted. After investigating the cases and classifying the radical causes
and incidents, categorization and definition of duplicate publication are presented. Eight out
of nine republished articles belonged to the first category of Baily’s index (copy publication)
and one was in the third category (minimum publishable unit: Salami slicing). The results of
the present article indicate that, the scientific community of the country is not yet familiar with
the professional principles of scientific and research affairs. According to the results of this
investigation, it is recommended to take official action against duplicate publication cases,
violation of copyright, and also to have strict instructions against this unethical practice.


1. Issued by Office of Science and technology Policy with a request for
public Comment.Proposed federal policy on misconduct to protect
the integrity of the research record. Fed Regist 1999;64:55722-5.
2. Office of Research integrity USPHS. Institutions elaborate PHS
definition of Misconduct. ORI News Lett 1995;3:5.
3. Office of research integrity. ORI provides working definition of
plagiarism. ORT News Lett 1994;3:5.
4. Committee on publication Ethics. Guidelines on good publication
and practice. 2009. Available from:
code-conduct [Last accessed on 2013 Nov 15].
5. Glick M.Plagiarism, Salami, Ghostwriting and other form of Flattery.
J Am Dent Assoc 2006;137:140, 142, 144.
6. Eysenbach G. Report of a case of cyberplagiarism and reflections on
detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the internet.
Journal of medical internet Research;:2000(Mar31);2:e4.
7. Schrader ES.Perils and pitfalls of plagiarism and how to avoid them.
AORN J 1980;31:981-2.
8. Armstrong JD 2nd.Plagiarism: What is it, whom does it offend, and
how does one deal with it?” AJR Am J Roentgenol1993;161:479-84.
9. DeMaria AN. Duplicate publication: Insights into the essence of a
medical journal. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:516-7.
10. International committee of medical journal Editors. Uniform
requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical Journals,
2008. Available from: [Last accessed on
2013 Nov 15].
11. Jeffeson T. Redundant publication in biomedical sciences: Scientific
misconduct or necessity?Sci Eng Ethics 1998;4:135-40.
12. World association of Medical Editors. Duplicate publication.
[Online], 2005. Available from:
wame-listserve-discussion/duplicate-publication. [Last accessed
on 2013 Nov 15].
13. Rooney JJ, VandenHeuvel LN. Root cause analysis for beginners.
Qual Prog 2004;37:45-53.
14. Hegyvary ST. What Every Author Should Know About Redundant
and Duplicate Publication. JNurs Sch 2005;37:295-7.
15. von Elm E, Poglia G, Walder B, Tramèr MR.Different patterns of
duplicate publicationan analysis of articles used in systematic
reviews. JAMA 2004;291:974-80.
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: N