1 Physiology Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences,

2 Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ilam University of Medical Sciences,

3 Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran


BACKGROUND: Studies have found that nearly 90% of the first use of tobacco takes place before
high school graduation (teenagers) and training discussion due to prevention can be useful, therefore,
here, we aimed to determine the effects of training on awareness of cigarette outcomes (physical
and psychological) in male teenagers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an interventional study using Solomon’s four‑group
plan, which used a two‑stage cluster sampling in four groups (two experimental groups and two
control groups). The three sessions of at least 2 h of education intervention including visual displaying
using photo, film, and short scientific texts were held for the interventional group. After 1 month, all
four groups took posttest, and research groups were followed up after 8 months of intervention. All
data were analyzed using one‑way analysis of variance and covariance in SPSS.
RESULTS: According to the results, the mean of posttest scores had increased rather than pretest
scores, and generally, a significant difference was observed (P ≤ 0.001). These results were
significant in the aspect of both physical and psychological outcomes awareness. The difference
between the mean of scores in follow‑up period and posttest was not statistically significant, and it
shows training retention after 8 months (P < 0.666).
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that through the training, it is possible to increase the awareness
of teenagers about physical and psychological outcomes of cigarette smoking that this can have an
important role in smoking prevention.


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